Thus, she needs to be assured by the groom that each event to take place before she becomes his wife must be done accordingly and with a unique style. The most important ceremony to a bride-to-be is the traditional wedding.
This is an event where she gets to Pepper Dem Gang with the beautiful and colourful attires to be worn, the Aso Ebi guests get to showoff their dapper looks, and there is the reunion of old friends and family members. The best and significant part of this ceremony is her bold walk away from her family to be united with the groom.
In Akwa Ibom, a state in the South-South region of Nigeria, the traditional wedding is a celebration of the diverse cultures of the communities. This article will focus on the traditional wedding processes in an Annang community Ikot Imo Essien in Essien Udim, a community in Ikot Ekpene local government area. In the supposed community, the parents of both lovers meet for the first time to hear the man officially state his intentions to the family members present.Gpbg ת
This is done for formality. Thereafter, both families get to know each other. The family of the woman will ask the future in-laws to return after the first visit for a list. This is not mandatory and the contents of the gifts are not dictated by the future in-laws. On the day of this ceremony, money will be given to the elders while the villagers will be invited to the traditional wedding with drinks and money.
There are procedures in every traditional wedding. In the supposed community in Essien Udim, the families of the bride and groom occupy different canopies.
Akwa Ibom Weddings: A Guide to the Traditional Marriage Processes
A troop of dancers will lead the parents of the bride to the venue. After the greeting of guests and family members, they will be led back to sit. When the intention is stated — the intention of marrying the bride — the groom will be called out since he is the person who is seeking to marry the bride. All these are formalities and for fun.
This is proven by his completion of a tedious task assigned to him or the payment of a sum of money. After this, he will be asked to go and sit. This, too, is done for fun and to show the financial capability of the groom. Unlike the Igbos, the Annang bride only comes out once on the day of her traditional wedding.
She will sit with her parents afterwards. When he confirms this, the bride will go out and take the groom to her parents while holding a bottle of wine. This is a formal introduction of her lover to her parents. Next, a cup will be brought and the content in it will be drank by everyone presently encircling the couple.
Download full-text. Read full-text. Download citation. Copy link Link copied. References 3. This study acknowledges that the Annang tribe had a long history of indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms and peacebuilding processes aimed at sustainable reconciliation.
In Annang, conflict resolution was done on the basis of institutional hierarchy and nature of conflict. This offers insight on how rigorous, community-based, victim-offender oriented and symbolic of culture and customs of the people the Annang conflict resolution mechanisms were. This paper used the historical approach in its findings which comprises the quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis.
It observes in its findings that while some of her customary conflict resolution methods may limp, the traditional institution remains invaluable for its core aim and preoccupation in every conflict resolution, which is the restoration of relationships. It summits that these Annang conflict resolution models, no doubt, will help in managing and resolving contemporary conflict issues especially where the western model seems inadequate and inaccessible.
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Content uploaded by Michael J. Author content All content in this area was uploaded by Michael J. Denis on Jun 30, Content may be subject to copyright. Traditional Conflict Resolution Approaches in Annang. Background of the Study. Ancient Annang society was relatively peaceful. This does not negate the fact th at there were issue s of conflict. This social harmony owes much to the ways that conflictive issues were handled. Their models of conflict resolution were.
List of Traditional Marriage Requirements in Abak LGA, Akwa Ibom State
Because of its effective, it has served as a paradigm for. Statement of Problem. There is a seemingly intractable upsurge of conflicts in our society; the Annang nation is not impervious to this. Remarkably, in the midst of this rising level of conflicts is the effort of formal legal system, state mercenary.
Evidences, however, show that these efforts are not yielding si gnificant results as. These inadequacies call for a. Consequent ly, it is our belief that the traditional.How old is the institution? For thousands of years before that, most anthropologists believe, families consisted of loosely organized groups of as many as 30 people, with several male leaders, multiple women shared by them, and children. As hunter-gatherers settled down into agrarian civilizations, society had a need for more stable arrangements.
The first recorded evidence of marriage ceremonies uniting one woman and one man dates from about B. Over the next several hundred years, marriage evolved into a widespread institution embraced by the ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. But back then, marriage had little to do with love or with religion. What was it about, then? If wives failed to produce offspring, their husbands could give them back and marry someone else.
When did religion become involved? As the Roman Catholic Church became a powerful institution in Europe, the blessings of a priest became a necessary step for a marriage to be legally recognized.
At the Council of Trent inthe sacramental nature of marriage was written into canon law. Did this change the nature of marriage? Church blessings did improve the lot of wives. Men were taught to show greater respect for their wives, and forbidden from divorcing them. This put new pressure on men to remain sexually faithful. But the church still held that men were the head of families, with their wives deferring to their wishes.
When did love enter the picture? Later than you might think. For much of human history, couples were brought together for practical reasons, not because they fell in love. In time, of course, many marriage partners came to feel deep mutual love and devotion. But the idea of romantic love, as a motivating force for marriage, only goes as far back as the Middle Ages. Twelfth-century advice literature told men to woo the object of their desire by praising her eyes, hair, and lips.
Did love change marriage? It sure did.Dossier archivio
Marilyn Yalom, a Stanford historian and author of A History of the Wife, credits the concept of romantic love with giving women greater leverage in what had been a largely pragmatic transaction. Wives no longer existed solely to serve men. The romantic prince, in fact, sought to serve the woman he loved. The bride gave up her name to symbolize the surrendering of her identity, and the husband suddenly became more important, as the official public representative of two people, not one.
The rules were so strict that any American woman who married a foreigner immediately lost her citizenship. How did this tradition change? Women won the right to vote. When that happened, inthe institution of marriage began a dramatic transformation. Suddenly, each union consisted of two full citizens, although tradition dictated that the husband still ruled the home.
By the late s, state laws forbidding interracial marriage had been thrown out, and the last states had dropped laws against the use of birth control.
The Roman emperor Nero, who ruled from A. In second- and third-century Rome, homosexual weddings became common enough that it worried the social commentator Juvenal, says Marilyn Yalom in A History of the Wife.Victor Attah, was mandated to amongst other things:.
His Royal Highness. The Ibibio Traditional Society is made up of a nuclear family of a man and his wife or wives and the children known as the "ufok" who combine with other "ufoks" with blood affinity to form the extended family or hamlet which are known as "ekpuk".
Various Ekpuks with blood relationship combine to form a Village known as "Idung". Several Idungs combined to form a clan which is called "Obio". Several Obios make up a Local Government Area. Several Obios clans of the Ibibio which close blood affinity iman joined to become the various "Essien Ibibio" the Houses of the Tribes of Ibibio which cuts across all the 18 Local Governments of Ibibio land.
The Traditional System of Administration and Rulership in Ibibio Land comprised of the ancient system, the present statutory system and the reformed traditional system. The Obong Ikpaisong is a Priest-King and performed both functions in the autonomous communities of the Ibibio Land within the Obios of his jurisdiction.
The various autonomous communities of the Ibibio collaborate and joined together with other Ibibio brothers known as iman to protect their common interest and defeat common enemies. The paramount Rulers are also known by the Traditional Titles and Offices in which their Offices were known from ancient times. The Ibibio people have a unique cultural system. The Ekpe, Obon, Ekpo and Anyamkpe Societies were used thorough out Ibibio land as an authority of traditional laws enforcement.Casa per casa il disegno di igor belansky soltanto apparentemente
The Ibibio people have a very colourful mode of traditional dressing which include a white designer lace material worn with a wrapper which could be Georges, Hollandise, etc to match.
There is a symbolic Ibibio Hart with various designs to cap the unique dressing of the Ibibio people. Traditional history has it that their ancestors were Israelis Jews who left Israel to Egypt and intermarried with the Egyptians and were pushed through various wars and conquests southward into the Sahara Desert. They moved across the desert and some of them settled in the upper west African Region at bc.
Remnants of their language according to Waddel can be found amongst middle-east. Migration brought groups of the Annangs to live amongst the Twi people of Ghana where the name Annang means the fourth son.
From Ghana, the group moved eastward into present day Cameroon. It was in Cameroon highlands that some of the Annangs broke off but later arrived at the same territory in the Coastal Southern Nigeria. The Annang Traditional Society is made up of a nuclear family of a man and his wife or wives and the children known as the "ufok" who combine with other "ufoks" with blood affinity to form the extended family or hamlet which are known as "ekpuk".
Several Obios clans of the Ibibio which close blood affinity iman joined to become the various "Essien Annang" the Houses of the Tribes of Annang which cuts across all the 8 Local Governments of Annang land.
The Annang Society is Patriarchal.The Annang also spelled Anaang is a cultural and ethnic group that lives in the coastal southeast Nigeria. However, during the then Nigerian Regional era, the then Eastern Region of Nigeria allowed Southwestern Cameroon to be partitioned out of Nigeria into Cameroon through the plebiscite.
Anaang society is patriarchal. Since polygamy is practised in the society, those who can so trace their ancestry to the same parents form Ufok literally a house or compound. Leadership at the family, lineage, village, or clan level remains the prerogative of the men, and lineage ties extends to women even after marriage. There are many societies and associations Urim for men and women which are very important in traditional village life.
Individuals are measured by both the number and types of memberships in Urim and by the achievements of one or more Urims. Governance is done by elderly males who act as the legislative arm called Afe Isong, directed by the Obong or Abong Ichong Village Chief and Clan Chief who is the head and the chief executive but without the authority beyond what the Afe Ichong gives. A chief can be appointed by the Afe or can be an inherited office.
The Anang people speak a language called Annang. Other masks embody the beautiful spirit, or mfon. The strength of any individual, family or group for that matter is typically based upon a consensus of the village or clan through this complex social system.
In all this, Anang women are not completely subordinate to men. The first-born female known as Adiaha is important and commands respect in the family and lineage. There are no traditional or cultural barriers that prevent women from attaining high offices or positions. Indeed, traditionally Anaang women have a great deal of economic independence from men.
The society was semi-matriarchal before colonialism. Children bore the names of their mothers and such common names as Essien, Essiet, Ukpong and Umo were female names and became androgynized when the missionaries saw matriarchy as anti-Christian.
Anaangs value the ability to speak well and oratory ability using proverbs is highly desirable, especially among the leaders.
The fattening room is traditionally where virgin adolescent girls are fattened up in preparation for marriage. A fattening room girl is known as a mbobo. This was an occasion for a major village celebration and as part of her preparation for marriage the girl was also instructed on how to be a wife. She would spend her time in the room naked so that her fattening could be observed, and would sleep on a bamboo bed which was thought to fatten her up.
It was also meant to make it more possible for her to conceive easily. This use for fertility purposes was also used at time for infertile wives and as a prerequisite for entrance into secret societies. According to oral tradition, the Abiakpo came to the northern range of Anaang from Eka Abiakpo. They were quickly followed by the Ukana clan, the Utu, Ekpu, Ebom and Nyama the British lumped these groups together and gave them the name Otoroand other Anaang clans.
The group is related to the Efiks, the Ibibios and the Igbos. From Ghana, the group moved eastward into present-day Cameroon. It was in the Cameroon highlands that the group broke off but later arrived at same territory in the Coastal Southeastern Nigeria.
Lineages were recognized and the groups organized themselves into clans based on old family origins known as Iman, a similar structure extends into the land of their northern neighbors, the Igbo.Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Try to make it as creative as possible; if you're given the opportunity to choose your own, take advantage of this.
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I'm happy! And I love my work! Because my team leader is kind, responsible and understanding. He trains me well before I do my actual work and all my coworkers are open-minded, as a trainee I feel the family spirit in the Doing the background research for a term paper in gerontology is more than half the task of actually writing the paper itself. If you are successful in the research, you end up having other people do your work for you!
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Of course, that does not mean plagiarism or simply copying what other people have written without giving proper credit. But the trick in writing is to save yourself the trouble of reinventing the wheel. You want to avoid floundering around trying to rediscover a fact or idea that someone else has already worked out before you. Wasting time that way is not necessary at all. In fact, it detracts from the real job of research and writing--namely, thinking about what others have written and deciding what to take and put into your own work.
The key is not to work harder but to work smarter. By building on other people's work, and giving credit to them where credit is due, you save yourself time and devote your best effort to expressing what you really have to say. The process is the same as the one that takes place in science. All science and all scholarship stand on the work of others. This point holds true for the beginning student no less than for great thinkers.
Indeed, the great physicist Isaac Newton himself once said: "If I've seen further than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Danny Rowe is a solid, dependable player who has consistently served the club for the past ten years. Danny has an insecure period of time left in the club because his age is affecting his playing ability. Invited to pastor a black holiness church in Los Angeles inSeymour opened the historic meeting in April, in a former African Methodist Episcopal church building at Azusa Street in downtown Los Angeles.
Azusa Street Mission Azusa Street Mission What happened at Azusa Street has fascinated church historians for decades and has yet to be fully understood and explained. For over three years, the Azusa Street "Apostolic Faith Mission" conducted three services a day, seven days a week, where thousands of seekers received the Holy Spirit.Based on estimates, there are about 4 million Annang speakers in Akwa Ibom and over a million speakers living outside of the state including Nigeria.
Anaang society is patriarchal. Individuals locate their place in the social world from the Ilipliterally translated as "womb". Those who can so trace their ancestry to the same parents form Ufok literally a house or compound. Several ufoks make up Ekpuks or extended family and several Ekpuks extended families make up "Ilung" meaning village and several villages make up the " abie " or clan.
This is in many ways similar to the system used by other Biafran peoples but more centralized. Leadership at the family, lineage, village, or clan level remains the prerogative of the men, and lineage ties extends to women even after marriage. There are many societies and associations Ulim also called "udim" for men and women which are very important in traditional village life.
Individuals are measured by both the number and types of memberships in Ulim and by the achievements of one or more Ulims. Governance is done by elderly males who act as the legislative arm called Afe Ichong, directed by the Abong Ichong Village Chief and Clan Chief who is the head and the chief executive but without the authority beyond what the Afe Ichong gives.
A chief can be appointed by the Afe or can be an inherited office. The Anang speak the Annang language and perform a masquerade after the yam harvest to mark the visit of ancestral spirits, or ekpo. This is also the name of a men's associations that once had great influence among Ibibio groups. The Anang carve masks with grotesque features, known as iliokwhich are considered dangerous and may only be viewed by members of the ekpo. Other masks embody the beautiful spirit, or mfon.
The strength of any individual, family or group for that matter is typically based upon a consensus of the village or clan through this complex social system.
In all this, Anang women are not completely subordinate to men.Shamanism symbol
Instead Anaang women are partners and leaders in many aspects of Anaang tradition, including serving as female chief priests "Abia Iyong" in the Iyong cult or as healers in the healing cults.
The first-born female known as Aliaha is important and commands respect in the family and lineage. Some traditions hold that a woman's first birth should take place in her mother's compound. Women's organizations such as "abi-de" and "Nyaama", and "Isong Iban" play important roles in giving the women voice and status in society. There are no traditional or cultural barriers that prevent women from attaining high offices or positions.
Anaangs value the ability to speak well and oratory ability using proverbs is highly desirable, especially among the leaders. The American anthropologist, Peter Farbstated that the name "Anaang" among this group means "they who speak well". An individual who has the gift of eloquent speech is often complimented as Akwo Anaangmeaning the "Man of Anaang".
The fattening room is traditionally where virgin adolescent girls were fattened up in preparation for marriage.
A fattening room girl is known as a mbobo. This was an occasion for a major village celebration.Ruth and Unyime Traditional Marriage Thriller
As part of her preparation for marriage the girl was also instructed on how to be a wife. She would spend her time in the room naked so that her fattening could be observed, and would sleep on a bamboo bed which was thought to fatten her up. It was also meant to make it more possible for her to conceive easily. This use for fertility purposes was also used at time for infertile wives and as a prerequisite for entrance into secret societies.
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